Somatic stem cells also called adult stem cells, exist naturally in the body. They are important for growth, healing, and replacing cells that are lost through daily wear and tear.
Stem cells from the blood and bone marrow are routinely used as a treatment for blood-related diseases. However, under natural circumstances somatic stem cells can become only a subset of related cell types. Bone marrow stem cells, for example, differentiate primarily into blood cells. This partial differentiation can be an advantage when you want to produce blood cells; but it is a disadvantage if you’re interested in producing an unrelated cell type.
For example, Mesenchymal stem cells are adult stem cells traditionally found in the bone marrow. However, mesenchymal stem cells can also be isolated from other tissues including cord blood, peripheral blood, fallopian tube, and fetal liver and lung.
Mesenchymal stem cells can make several types of cells belonging to our skeletal tissues, such as cartilage, bone and fat. Mesenchymal stem cells therapy has been considered as the new option to treat infertility.
The online search process yielded 11,419 studies, among them, 145 papers received all inclusion criteria, A total 53 articles were selected after removing duplicates and reviews.
These studies performed mostly on animal models and found that Mesenchymal stem cells might have the potential to increase the efficiency of fertility restoration after chemo- or radiotherapy. Some reports claim that Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate to the germline, and thus restore fertility after trans- plantation to the testis. One study demonstrated that Mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into functional sperm. However, transplanting of Mesenchymal stem cells alone resulted in a meiotic block during differentiation. Therefore, Mesenchymal stem cells could be used as supportive cells.
What’s mean supportive cells?
Mesenchymal stem cells produce paracrine factors and growth factors which might create a supportive environment for the resident stem cells to divide and produce sperm again.
This technique must be screened thoroughly for efficiency and safety before implementation into a clinical set-up.
Safety might be ensured by investigating the genetic and epigenetic content of the obtained sperm cells and offspring.
Some clinical trial has planned for effect of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treatment of infertility, but its outcome is unknown at present
Read more: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28884412