Semen analysis-W.H.O. 2010 reference ranges:
|Sperm Concentration||>14 x 106 sperm/mL|
|Forward Progression||2 (scale 1-4)|
|Primary Testis Failure||Low||High||High/NL||NL|
Semen Leukocyte Analysis:
On a routine semen analysis, “round” cells are often found in addition to sperm with tails. These “round” cells are either immature sperm forms (spermatocytes) or white blood cells (leukocytes). It is important to distinguish between these two cell types because the treatments differ.
Also infrequently indicated, chromosomal analysis is performed in men with low (less than 5 million) or no sperm in the ejaculate
Y Chromosome Analysis:
It has become apparent that up to 8% of men with low sperm counts and 15% of men with no sperm counts may be missing small portions of the Y chromosome, termed Y–microdeletions.