Male Infertility Evaluation and Semen Analysis

Male Infertility Evaluation and Semen Analysis

Semen analysis-W.H.O. 2010 reference ranges:

Ejaculate Volume 1.5-5.5mL
Sperm Concentration >14 x 106 sperm/mL
Motility >43%
Forward Progression 2 (scale 1-4)
Morphology >4% Kruger


Hormone Tests:

Condition T FSH LH PRL
Normal NL NL NL NL
Primary Testis Failure Low High High/NL NL
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Low Low Low NL
Hyperprolactinemia Low Low/NL Low High
Androgen Resistance High High High NL


Semen Leukocyte Analysis:

On a routine semen analysis, “round” cells are often found in addition to sperm with tails. These “round” cells are either immature sperm forms (spermatocytes) or white blood cells (leukocytes). It is important to distinguish between these two cell types because the treatments differ.


Also infrequently indicated, chromosomal analysis is performed in men with low (less than 5 million) or no sperm in the ejaculate


Y Chromosome Analysis:

It has become apparent that up to 8% of men with low sperm counts and 15% of men with no sperm counts may be missing small portions of the Y chromosome, termed Ymicrodeletions.



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